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LACTULOSE

Lactulose is a laxative that is widely used to treat constipation. It has a particularly gentle and natural mode of action that involves prebiotic, osmotic and peristalsis-activating effects.

 

More than a laxative

Health-promoting

 

Lactulose is an energy source for intrinsic colonic bacteria and stimulates their growth and activity. This efficiently reduces the colonic transit time, making lactulose a naturally active and gentle laxative. It is a well-established and important product in human medicine with a good tolerability and safety profile. Its many benefits guarantee lactulose a diversified future with bright prospects in new application areas.

 

A carbohydrate derived from nature

Though lactulose does not occur in nature, it is an isomer of lactose, the natural milk sugar, and is produced directly from lactose. Lactulose is a disaccharide of the simple sugars galactose and fructose. Enzymes in the gut can split lactose, but not lactulose.

Energy source for the gut flora

After oral intake, lactulose passes the stomach and small intestine unchanged. It reaches the colon where it can be used as an energy source by Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. This promotes growth of these gut bacteria. Due to its good tolerability, lactulose is also used as a food ingredient and is added to animal feed.

Gentle laxative

Chronic constipation quite often needs to be treated with a laxative. Degradation of lactulose by colonic bacteria yields an increase of bacterial mass and osmotic pressure, which in turn results in increased stool volume and enhancement of peristalsis. As a result lactulose alleviates bowel movement. This natural combination of prebiotic, osmotic and activating effects makes lactulose an effective laxative.

 

 

 

Detoxifying properties

Another medical indication for lactulose is portal systemic encephalopathy (PSE), also known as hepatic encephalopathy. This is a disease state that results from liver damage, for example in advanced cirrhosis. The impaired liver function allows toxic substances, including ammonia, to accumulate in the bloodstream. Elevated blood ammonia interferes with brain functions, causing cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric disorders.

At high doses, lactulose promotes the excretion of ammonia and helps to restore normal neurological function. Hence lactulose is the treatment of choice for PSE.

WHAT IS LACTULOSE?

Derived from nature

Chemistry

The disaccharide lactulose is an isomerisation product from lactose (galacto-glucose), a natural component of milk. It consists of the two monosaccharides galactose and fructose. The production process for lactulose was developed in our laboratories researching carbohydrates, and was patented in 1969.

Characteristics

Lactulose cannot be split by human enzymes present in the gut. Therefore it passes the stomach and small intestine and reaches the colon unchanged, where it is split by saccharolytic bacteria. The particularly gentle and natural laxative action of lactulose results from its prebiotic, osmotic, and peristalsis-activating effects.

 

EFFECTS OF LACTULOSE

Multiple benefits

Mode of action

Lactulose has three major effects:

 

  • It acts as (prebiotic) energy source for bacteria

Prebiotics are food ingredients that have beneficial health effects by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of colonic bacteria. It has been demonstrated that lactulose is used as a carbohydrate resource by bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. The main effects of this fermentation process are a drop of pH in the colon and a favourable change in composition and metabolic activity of the intestinal flora.

  • It acts as an osmotically active laxative

Lactulose is degraded in the colon by saccharolytic bacteria, like lactobacilli, into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Thus the intestinal content acidifies, the osmotic pressure rises, and stool volume increases. Furthermore, intestinal peristalsis is enhanced. This leads to the laxative effect of lactulose characterised by a shorter colon transit time and accelerated bowel movement.

 

  • It reduces blood ammonia levels

Lactulose promotes the growth of gut bacteria and increases biomass. For the synthesis of bacterial protein, ammonia and nitrogen are used. At the same time, production of ammonia is inhibited by acidifying the intestinal content. This reduces the passage of free ammonia from the intestine into the blood. Together with a shortened transit time and a decreased residence time of ammonia in the intestinal lumen, the excretion of ammonia with the stool is accelerated. The sum of these effects leads to a reduction of blood ammonia levels.

 

UNIQUE FEATURES

Gut health remedy

Bifidogenic

Today’s scientific knowledge demonstrates the importance and contribution of the human microbiome to health and wellbeing.

 

Many laxatives are designed to clean the intestines by removing the bowel contents irrespective of their impact on the microorganisms that grow there.

In contrast to these products the main and unique characteristic of lactulose, beyond its laxative effects, is its demonstrated bifidogenic or prebiotic property. This together with an efficient reduction of the colonic transit time makes lactulose a naturally active and at the same time gentle laxative.

 

FOOD INGREDIENT

Supporting gut health

Health-promoting

 

In today's fast-moving world, living and eating habits often have a negative impact on metabolism and digestion.

Already in 1957 it was demonstrated that lactulose stimulates the proliferation of colonic bacteria (lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) in adults and infants. This is called the bifidogenic or prebiotic effect. Lactulose has several characteristics which make it an effective prebiotic:

 

  • It is indigestible by human enzymes in the gut
  • It is non-absorbable in the small intestine
  • Therefore it passes unchanged into the colon
  • It is an attractive energy source for saccharolytic bacteria

Approved health claims

 

The beneficial effect of lactulose on the human colon has been recognised by various regulatory authorities.

Corresponding health claims for lactulose have been approved, for example, by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA).

 

Due to its prebiotic effect lactulose is an ideal ingredient for the development of food designed to support or maintain overall well-being. It can be used to develop convenience food for the general population as well as special food products for certain age groups or persons with specific nutrition requirements.

 

ANIMAL FEED INGREDIENT

Healthy animal feed

Listed feed material

 

Especially in livestock breeding, the reduction of antibiotic use is a major issue. Lactulose has been listed in the EU catalogue of feed materials since 2011 (Regulation 575/2011).

Since 2013 lactulose has also been accepted for inclusion into the ‘Positive List for Straight Feeding Stuffs’, published by the ‘Standards Commission for Straight Feeding Stuffs at the Central Committee of German Agriculture’.

This official recognition of lactulose as a feed ingredient underpins the importance and the need for health-maintaining ingredients for the development of animal feed.


Sodium tri poly phosphate (STPP)
 
Sodium tri poly phosphateis an inorganic compound with formula Na5P3O10. It is the sodium salt of the polyphosphate penta-anion, which is the conjugate base of triphosphoric acid. It is produced on a large scale as a component of many domestic and industrial products, especially detergents. It serves as a "builder," industrial jargon for a water softener. In hard water (water that contains high concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+), detergents are deactivated. Being a highly charged chelating agent, TPP5− binds to dications tightly and prevents them from interfering with the sulfonate detergent.

Sodium saccharin
Sodium saccharin is the salt form of saccharin, an artificial sweetener. Like many other salts, it dissociates into its component parts when dissolved in water. Sodium saccharin has 300 times the sweetening power of sugar. Inert bulking agents are commonly added to commercial products to make them easier to use.

 

Sodium laureth sulfate (SLES)
is an anionic detergent and surfactant found in many personal care products (soaps, shampoos, toothpasteetc.). SLES is an inexpensive and very effective foaming agent) its cleaning and emulsifying properties make it suitable for detergent industries. They behave similarly to soap. SLES is prepared by ethoxylation of dodecyl alcohol. The resulting ethoxylate is converted to a half ester of sulfuric acid, which is neutralized by conversion to the sodium salt.

 

Sodium sulphate anhydrous
Sodium sulfate is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates. All forms are white solids that are highly soluble in water. It is mainly used for the manufacture of detergents and in the Kraft process of paperpulping. The largest use is as filler in powdered home laundry detergents.
Fatty alcohols
Fatty alcohols (or long-chain alcohols) are usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4–6 carbons to as many as 22–26, derived from natural fats and oils. The precise chain length varies with the source.[1][2] Some commercially important fatty alcohols are lauryl, stearyl, and oleyl alcohols. They are colourless oily liquids (for smaller carbon numbers) or waxy solids, Fatty alcohols are mainly used in the production of detergents and surfactants. They are components also of cosmetics, foods, and as industrial solvents. Due to their amphipathic nature, fatty alcohols behave as nonionic surfactants. They find use as co-emulsifiers, emollients and thickeners in cosmetics and food industry. About 50% of fatty alcohols used commercially are of natural origin, the remainder being synthetic.

 

Fatty acids
Fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Most naturally occurring fatty acids have an un-branched chain of an even number of carbon atoms, from 4 to 28.the main usage of fatty acids is in soap industries.

Crude and refine glycerin
Glycerin is a simple polyol (sugar alcohol) compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and non-toxic. It is widely used in the food industry as a sweetener and humectant and in pharmaceutical formulations. Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. Glycerol is used in medical and pharmaceutical and personal care preparations, mainly as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication and as a humectant. Allyl iodide, a chemical building block for polymers, preservatives, organometallic catalysts, and pharmaceuticals, can be synthesized by using elementalphosphorus and iodine on glycerol.

RBD coconut oil)Refined, Bleached and Deodorized (
Coconut oil, or copra oil, is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). It has various applications. Because of its high saturated fat content, it is slow to oxidize and, thus, resistant to rancidification, lasting up to six months at 24 °C (75 °F) without spoiling Refined, bleached, and deodorized" (RBD) oil is usually made from copra, dried coconut kernel, which is placed in a hydraulic press with added heat and the oil is extracted. This yields practically all the oil present, amounting to more than 60% of the dry weight of the coconut. This "crude" coconut oil is not suitable for consumption because it contains contaminants and must be refined with further heating and filtering.

Another method for extraction of coconut oil involves the enzymatic action of alpha-amylase, polygalacturonases, and proteases on diluted coconut paste.
Unlike virgin coconut oil, refined coconut oil has no coconut taste or aroma. RBD oil is used for home cooking, commercial food processing, and cosmetic, industrial, and pharmaceutical purposes.

RBD Palm oil)Refined, Bleached and Deodorized (
Palm oil (also known as dendê oil, from Portuguese) is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms. Palm oil is naturally reddish in color because of a high beta-carotene content. After milling, various palm oil products are made using refining processes. First is fractionation, with crystallization and separation processes to obtain solid (stearin), and liquid (olein) fractions. Then melting and degumming removes impurities. Then the oil is filtered and bleached. Physical refining[clarification needed] removes smells and coloration to produce "refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil" (RBDPO) and free sheer fatty acids,[clarification needed] which are used in the manufacture of soaps, washing powder and other products.

 


Tallow oil
Tallow oil is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. It is solid at room temperature. Unlike suet( پیه ), tallow can be stored for extended periods without the need for refrigeration to prevent decomposition, provided it is kept in an airtight( محفوظ از هوا ) container to prevent oxidation.In industry, tallow is not strictly defined as beef or mutton fat. In this context, tallow is animal fat that conforms to certain technical criteria, including its melting point. Beef tallow is obtained by rendering beef fat, the resultant product then being bleached, neutralised and deodorised (refined beef tallow). On the other hand, the product of fat that is simply rendered is known as "edible beef tallow". Beef tallow is obtained by means of a dry or wet rendering process. The wet rendering process is more gentle and delivers better yields. With the wet rendering process, offal from slaughterhouses undergoes coarse mechanical pulverising and is then steam-heated to a temperature of at least 90°C, breaking down and sterilising enzymes. Fat is then removed from the tissue. The water-fat mixture is then cooled and the fat (edible beef tallow) is separated. Further chemical-physical stages (bleaching, neutralisation, deodorisation) ultimately deliver a product known as 'refined beef tallow'.


COCODIETHANOLAMIDE(CDE)
COCODIETHANOLAMIDE(CDE) is derived from RBD palm Kernel oil is a thickening and foam stabilizing agent in dish wash and shampoos. The final dish wash / shampoo must be neutral or slightly alkaline (PH 6.57.5). Otherwise, the maximum thickening will not be achieved and the solution may become cloudy. CDE will give a clear transparent solution and will not cause itching when used in dish wash/ shampoo if recommended conditions are followed.

 


Betaine -30
Betaine -30 (Cocoamide Propyl Betaine) is a RBD palm oil based biodegradable a mphoteric surfacta nt with betaine structure. As an amphoteric surfactant, Betaine -30 is compatible with anionic and cationic surfactants. It is particularly very suitable for mild (skin friendly) preparations such as shampoos, liquid soaps, dishwashing detergents, make up removers, in- bath products etc. Good foaming properties of Betaine -30 give fine and stable foam. It has substantively to the hair to provide soft touch and anti-static effect.

 


Cobalt hydroxide
Cobalt hydroxide is the chemical compound composed of cobalt and the hydroxide ionwith the formula Co(OH)2. It occurs in two forms, either as a rose-red powder, which is the more stable of the two forms, or as bluish-green powder.[1][4] It has the brucite or cadmium iodide crystal structure. It finds use as a drying agent for paints, varnishes and inks, in the preparation of other cobalt compounds, as a catalystand in the manufacture of battery electrodes.

 

Titanium dioxide
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. When used as a pigment(رنگ دانه), it is called titanium white, Pigment White 6 (PW6), or CI 77891. Generally it is sourced from ilmenite, rutile and anatase. It has a wide range of applications, from paint to sunscreen to food colouring. When used as a food colouring, it has E number E171. The most important application areas are paints and varnishes as well as paper and plastics, which account for about 80% of the world's titanium dioxide consumption. Other pigment applications such as printing inks, fibers, rubber, cosmetic products and foodstuffs account for another 8%. The rest is used in other applications, for instance the production of technical pure titanium, glass and glass ceramics, electrical ceramics, catalysts, electric conductors and chemical intermediat Titanium dioxide is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and very high refractive index, in which it is surpassed only by a few other materials. es,

 

Barium sulfate
Barium sulfate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaSO4. It is a white crystalline solid that is odorless and insoluble in water. It occurs as the mineral barite(سنگ معدن) , which is the main commercial source of barium and materials prepared from it. The white opaque( مات ) appearance and its high density are exploited in its main applications. The majority of synthetic barium sulfate is used as a component of white pigment for paints. In oil paint, barium sulfate is almost transparent, and is used as a filler or to modify consistency. Barium Sulfate is commonly used as filler for plastics to increase the density of the polymer in vibrational mass damping applications. In polypropylene and polystyrene plastics, it is used as a filler in proportions up to 70%.


Litharge مونوکسید سرب
Litharge is one of the natural mineral forms of lead(II) oxide, PbO. Litharge is a secondary mineral which forms from the oxidation of galena ores. It forms as coatings and encrustations with internal tetragonal crystal structure. Litharge is not used as a pigment in oil painting, but was used in manuscript illumination, powder painting, encaustic and fresco. It is synthesized by the alkali-catalyzed reaction of cellulose with chloroacetic acid.

Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)
Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or cellulose gum[1] is a cellulose derivative with carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone. It is often used as its sodium salt, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. CMC is used in food under the E number E466 as a viscosity modifier or thickener, and to stabilize emulsions in various products including ice cream. It is also a constituent of many non-food products, such as toothpaste, laxatives, dietpills, water-based paints, detergents, textile sizing, and various paper products. It is used primarily because it has highviscosity, is nontoxic, and is generally considered to be hypoallergenic as the major source fiber is either softwood pulp or cotton linter.

 

Pentaerythritol
Pentaerythritol is an organic compound with the formula C5H12O4. This white, crystalline polyol with the neopentane backbone is a versatile building block for the preparation of many poly functionalized compounds. Applications are building block in Alkyd resins, radiation curing monomers, polyurethanes, rosin esters, synthetic lubricants and explosives.Derivatives of pentaerythritol are components of alkydresins, varnishes, polyvinyl chloride stabilizers, tall oil esters, and olefin antioxidants.

 

Trimethylolpropane (TMP)
Trimethylolpropane (TMP) is the organic compound with the formula CH3CH2C(CH2OH)3. This colourless solid is atriol. Containing three hydroxy functional groups, TMP is a widely used building block in the polymer industry. Also TMP is mainly consumed as a precursor to alkyd resins. Otherwise, acrylated and alkoxylated TMP's are used as multifunctional monomers to produce various coatings, Ethoxylated and propoxylated TMP, derived condensation of from TMP and the epoxides, are used for production of flexible polyurethanes.

 

 


methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)
Butanone, also known as methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), is an organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)CH2CH3. This colorless liquid ketone has a sharp, sweet odor reminiscent of butterscotch and acetone. It is produced industrially on a large scale, and also occurs in trace amounts in nature. It is soluble in water and is commonly used as an industrial solvent. Butanone is an effective and common solvent and is used in processes involving gums, resins, cellulose acetate and nitrocellulose coatings and in vinyl films. For this reason it finds use in the manufacture of plastics, textiles, in the production of paraffin wax, and in household products such as lacquer, varnishes, paint remover, a denaturing agent for denatured alcohol, glues, and as a cleaning agent. It has similar solvent properties to acetone but boils at a higher temperature and has a significantly slower evaporation rate. Butanone is also used in dry erase markers as the solvent of the erasable dye. As butanone dissolves polystyrene and many other plastics, it is sold as "model cement" for use in connecting parts ofscale model kits. Though often considered an adhesive, it is actually functioning as a welding agent in this context.


MEKO (Methylethyl ketone oxime)
Methylethyl ketone oxime is the organic compound with the formula C2H5C(NOH)CH3. This colorless liquid is the oxime derivative of methyl ethyl ketone. MEKO, as it is called in the paint industry, is used to suppress "skinning" of paints: the formation of a skin on paint before it is used. MEKO functions by binding the drying agents, metal salts that catalyze the oxidative crosslinking of drying oils. Once the paint is applied to a surface, MEKO evaporates, thereby allowing the drying process to proceed. Other anti-skinning agents have been used, including phenol-based antioxidants, but these tend to yellow the paint.

 


IPA (Isopropyl alcohol)
Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol), also called isopropanol or dimethyl carbinol, is a compound with thechemical formula C3H8O or C3H7OH or CH3CHOHCH3 (sometimes represented as i-PrOH). It is a colorless, flammablechemical compound with a strong odor. Isopropyl alcohol dissolves a wide range of non-polar compounds. It also evaporates quickly, leaves nearly zero oil traces, compared to ethanol, and is relatively non-toxic, compared to alternative solvents. Thus, it is used widely as a solvent and as a cleaning fluid, especially for dissolving oils. It can use as a intermediate, medical and in automotive a major ingredient in "gas dryer" fuel additives.

IPA

 

Phenol
Phenol, also known as carbolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH. It is a white crystalline solid that is volatile. The molecule consists of a phenyl group (−C6H5) bonded to a hydroxyl group(−OH). It is mildly acidic and requires careful handling due to its propensity to cause chemical burns.
Phenol was first extracted from coal tar, but today is produced on a large scale (about 7 billion kg/year) frompetroleum. It is an important industrial commodity as a precursor to many materials and useful compounds.[6] It is primarily used to synthesize plastics and related materials. Phenol and its chemical derivatives are essential for production of polycarbonates, epoxies, Bakelite, nylon, detergents, herbicides such as phenoxy herbicides, and numerous pharmaceutical drugs.the major uses of phenol, consuming two thirds of its production, involve its conversion to precursors for plastics. Condensation with acetone gives bisphenol-A, a key precursor to polycarbonates and epoxide resins. Condensation of phenol, alkylphenols, or diphenols with formaldehyde gives phenolic resins, a famous example of which is Bakelite. Partial hydrogenation of phenol gives cyclohexanone, a precursor to nylon. Nonionicdetergents are produced by alkylation of phenol to give the alkylphenols, e.g., nonylphenol, which are then subjected to ethoxylation.


Acetone
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.[13] It is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid, and is the simplest ketone.
Acetone is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically for cleaning purposes in the laboratory. About 6.7 million tonnes were produced worldwide in 2010, mainly for use as a solvent and production ofmethyl methacrylate and bisphenol A.[14][15] It is a common building block in organic chemistry. Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover and as paint thinner.
Acetone is produced and disposed of in the human body through normal metabolic processes. It is normally present in blood and urine. People with diabetes produce it in larger amounts. Reproductive toxicity tests show that it has low potential to cause reproductive problems. Pregnant women, nursing mothers and children have higher levels of acetone.[16] Ketogenic diets that increase acetone in the body are used to counter epileptic attacks in infants and children who suffer from recalcitrant refractory epilepsy. About a third of the world's acetone is used as a solvent, and a quarter is consumed as acetone cyanohydrin, a precursor to methyl methacrylate.

 

Ethylene glycol
Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound primarily used as a raw material in the manufacture of polyester fibers and fabric industry, and polyethylene terephthalate resins (PET) used in bottling. A small percent is also used in industrial applications like antifreeze formulations and other industrial products. It is an odorless, colorless, syrupy, sweet-tasting liquid. Ethylene glycol is moderately toxic, with children having been particularly at risk because of its sweet taste, until it became common to add bitter flavoring to consumer antifreezes containing it. Ethylene glycol is primarily used as a raw material in the manufacture of polyester fibers and fabric industry, andpolyethylene terephthalate (PET) resins used in bottling. A small percent is also used in other applications such as antifreeze formulations and other products. Ethylene glycol is used in the natural gas industry to remove water vapor from natural gas before further processing, in much the same manner as triethylene glycol (TEG).


Formic acid
Formic acid (also called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. The chemical formula is HCOOH or HCO2H. It is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and occurs naturally, most notably in some ants. The word "formic" comes from the Latin word for ant, formica, referring to its early isolation by the distillation of ant bodies. Esters, salts, and the anions derived from formic acid are called formates. A major use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. In Europe, it is applied on silage (including fresh hay) to promote the fermentation of lactic acid and to suppress the formation of butyric acid; it also allows fermentation to occur quickly, and at a lower temperature, reducing the loss of nutritional value. Formic acid is also significantly used in the production of leather, including tanning (23% of the global consumption in 2009[10]), and in dyeing and finishing textiles (9% of the global consumption in 2009[10]) because of its acidic nature. Use as a coagulant in the production of rubber[7] consumed 6% of the global production in 2009
Cyclohexanol is the organic compound with the formula (CH2)5CHOH. The molecule is related to cyclohexane ring by replacement of one hydrogen atom by a hydroxyl group.[4] This compound exists as a deliquescent colorless solid with a camphor-like odor, which, when very pure, melts near room temperature. Billions of kilograms are produced annually, mainly as a precursor to nylon .As indicated above, cyclohexanol is an important feedstock in the polymer industry, firstly as a precursor to nylons, but also to various plasticizers. Small amounts are used as a solvent.

Naphthalenesulfonic
Naphthalenesulfonic acid was used as template molecule to prepare new non-covalent molecularly imprinted polymer for solid-phase extraction of naphthalene sulfonates. Naphthalenesulfonic acid is a superplasticizers which has remarkable effect on hydration kinetic and mechanical properties of cement pastes. Naphthalenesulfonic acid increases the workability and reduce the standard water of consistency. This results in an improvement in the mechanical properties of superplasticized cement pastes at all ages of the hydration–hardening process. Naphthalene sulfonate-formaldehyde condensate was found to have the higher efficiency in improving the mechanical properties of the hardened pastes than that of sodium lignosulfonate superplasticizer. Naphthalene sulfonic acids are used in the manufacture of naphthalene sulfonate polymer plasticizers (dispersants), which are used to produce concrete andplasterboard (wallboard or drywall). They are also used as dispersants in synthetic and natural rubbers, and as tanning agents (syntans) in leather industries,agricultural formulations (dispersants for pesticides), dyes and as a dispersant in lead–acid battery plates.
Naphthalene sulfonate polymers are produced by treating naphthalenesulfonic acid with formaldehyde, followed by neutralization with sodium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide. These products are commercially sold in solution (water) or dry powder form.

 

Natural rubber
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compoundisoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds plus water. . Forms ofpolyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Natural rubber is used by many manufacturing companies for the production of rubber products. Currently, rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex from the para rubber tree or others. The latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions into the bark and collecting the fluid in vessels in a process called "tapping". The latex then is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products, either alone or in combination with other materials. In major areas latex is allowed to coagulate in the collection cup. The coagulated lumps are collected and processed into dry forms for marketing. In most of its useful forms, it has a large stretch ratio and high resilience, and is extremely waterproof. Compared to vulcanized rubber, uncured rubber has relatively few uses. It is used for cements; for adhesive, insulating, and friction tapes; and for crepe rubber used in insulating blankets and footwear. Vulcanized rubber, on the other hand, has numerous applications. Resistance to abrasion makes softer kinds of rubber valuable for the treads of vehicle tires and conveyor belts, and makes hard rubber valuable for pump housings and piping used in the handling of abrasive sludge.
The flexibility of rubber is often used in hoses, tires, and rollers for a wide variety of devices ranging from domestic clothes wringers to printing presses; its elasticity makes it suitable for various kinds of shock absorbers and for specialized machinery mountings designed to reduce vibration. Being relatively impermeable to gases, rubber is useful in the manufacture of articles such as air hoses, balloons, balls, and cushions. The resistance of rubber to water and to the action of most fluid chemicals has led to its use in rainwear, diving gear, and chemical and medicinal tubing, and as a lining for storage tanks, processing equipment, and railroad tank cars. Because of their electrical resistance, soft rubber goods are used as insulation and for protective gloves, shoes, and blankets; hard rubber is used for articles such as telephone housings, parts for radio sets, meters, and other electrical instruments. The coefficient of friction of rubber, which is high on dry surfaces and low on wet surfaces, leads to the use of rubber both for power-transmission belting and for water-lubricated bearings in deep-well pumps.

This compound is used as a fungicide, seed disinfectant, bactericide, animal repellent, insecticide. It is used as a primary and secondary accelerator or as a sulfur donor (vulcanizing agent) in most sulfur-cured elastomers in rubber industry. It is also used in the treatments of chronic alcoholism with cause of acetaldehyde, a breakdown product of alcohol, to accumulate in the blood. It is a peptizing agent in sulfur-modified polychloroprenes. It is used in soaps and rodent repellents and as a nut, fruit and mushroom disinfectant.

CBS (N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulphenamide)
This compound is the most common sulfenamide accelerator in EDPM. It is a primarily amine-based accelerator providing medium-fast cure with good scorch safety and excellent modulus development.It is also used as a secondary accelerators in combination with such as TMTD to adjust curing characteristics. Rubber accelerators are now being fabricated in finely dispersed powder form, which improves the distribution of the compounds in rubber mixes. But the dispersion of the accelerators causes lumping and caking, and this hinders process mechanization and automatic control in the preparation and processing of rubber mixes. Granulation of rubber cure accelerators results in material which flows freely and is easily transported, but the accelerator should retain its finely dispersed structure. Granules satisfying this requirements can be produced on extruders by taking advantage of the tendency of aqueous pastes of rubber vulcanizing accelerators to plasticize when subjected to intense mixing and grinding.

DPG (Diphenyl guanidine),
Guanidine, also called carbamidine, is a strongly alkaline and water-soluble compound, NHC(NH2)2 It is formed by the oxidation of guanine in urine as a normal product of protein metabolism in the body. In industry, guanidine, containing nitrogens and N=C solid bond, and its modified derivatives are versatile intermediates used in the manufacture of plastics, resins, rubber chemicals, nitroguanidines (explosives), photo chemicals, fungicides, and disinfectant. It has also biotechnological application of protein separation, purification and as a protein denaturant. It can be used as an oxygen scavenger to prevent corrosion damage. It is used as a component of rocket propellants because it produce a large amount of heat when burned.
Diphenylguanidine is one of common accelerators for the vulcanization of rubber in combination with thiazoles and sulfenamides. Though it does not show better activity than thiuram and dithiocarbamates, it has better stability. It is used as a complexing agent for the detection of metals and organic bases. It is used as a secondary foam stabilizer in the silicoflouride foam process.


MBS (N-Oxydiethylene-2-benzothiazole sulfonamide)
Light yellow or orange crystal (granule), non-poisonous but with a little odor of ammonia. The proportion is 1.34-1.40, Melting point is 80 ℃. Soluble in benzene, acetone, chloroform, insoluble in water, dilute acid, dilute alkali. A delayed vulcanization accelerator, with the peculiarity of weak activity, strong refund ductility, short curing time, good scorch resistance, and its processing is safe, . Mainly used in the manufacture of tires, rubber hose, rubber shoes, conveyor belt and other industrial rubber products.

 

MBT (2-Mercapto Benzothiazole)
Slightly foul odor and bitter taste, non-poisonous. Easily soluble in ethyl acetone, acetone, dilute solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate, soluble in ethyl alcohol, not easily soluble in benzene, insoluble in water and gasoline. The product is a hemi-ultra accelerator, extensively used in vulcanization of natural and synthetic rubbers. Mainly used in manufacturing of rubber tire, rubber belts, rubber shoes and other technical rubber goods.


Bisphenol A
What is BPA?
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical used to make polycarbonate plastic resins, epoxy resins, and other products.
How is BPA used?
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical building block that is used primarily to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastic is a lightweight, high-performance plastic that possesses a unique balance of toughness, optical clarity, high heat resistance, and excellent electrical resistance. Because of these attributes, polycarbonate is used in a wide variety of common products including digital media (e.g., CDs, DVDs), electrical and electronic equipment, automobiles, sports safety equipment, reusable food and drink containers , and many other products.
BPA is also used in the production of epoxy resins. Epoxy resins have many uses including engineering applications such as electrical laminates for printed circuit boards, composites, paints and adhesives, as well as in a variety of protective coatings. Cured epoxy resins are inert materials used as protective liners in metal cans to maintain the quality of canned foods and beverages, and have achieved wide acceptance for use as protective coatings because of their exceptional combination of toughness, adhesion, formability, and chemical resistance.

How much BPA is produced?
In 2002, approximately 2.8 million tons of bisphenol A (BPA) was produced globally (Source: Chemical Market Associates, Inc. (CMAI)). Most BPA is used to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins.
Has BPA been tested for safety?
Yes. Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most extensively tested materials in use today. BPA has been safely used in consumer products and researched and studied for over 40 years. The weight of scientific evidence clearly supports the safety of BPA and provides strong reassurance that there is no basis for human health concerns from exposure to BPA.
Does BPA pose a risk to human health?
Safety assessments of bisphenol A (BPA) conclude that the potential human exposure to BPA from polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins is more than 400 times lower than the safe level of BPA set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This minimal level of exposure to BPA poses no known risk to human health.
The use of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins for food contact applications has been and continues to be recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Food, the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency, and other regulatory agencies worldwide

 

 

Sodium tri poly phosphate (STPP)

 

Sodium tri poly phosphateis an inorganic compound with formula Na5P3O10. It is the sodium salt of the polyphosphate penta-anion, which is the conjugate base of triphosphoric acid. It is produced on a large scale as a component of many domestic and industrial products, especially detergents.  It serves as a "builder," industrial jargon for a water softener. In hard water (water that contains high concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+), detergents are deactivated. Being a highly charged chelating agent, TPP5− binds to dications tightly and prevents them from interfering with the sulfonate detergent.

 

 

Sodium saccharin

Sodium saccharin is the salt form of saccharin, an artificial sweetener. Like many other salts, it dissociates into its component parts when dissolved in water. Sodium saccharin has 300 times the sweetening power of sugar. Inert bulking agents are commonly added to commercial products to make them easier to use.

 

 

 

Sodium laureth sulfate (SLES)

 is an anionic detergent and surfactant found in many personal care products (soapsshampoostoothpasteetc.). SLES is an inexpensive and very effective foaming agent) its cleaning and emulsifying properties make it suitable for detergent industries. They behave similarly to soap. SLES is prepared by ethoxylation of dodecyl alcohol. The resulting ethoxylate is converted to a half ester of sulfuric acid, which is neutralized by conversion to the sodium salt.

 

 

 

Sodium sulphate anhydrous

Sodium sulfate is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates. All forms are white solids that are highly soluble in water.  It is mainly used for the manufacture of detergents and in the Kraft process of paperpulping.  The largest use is as filler in powdered home laundry detergents.

 

Fatty alcohols

Fatty alcohols (or long-chain alcohols) are usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4–6 carbons to as many as 22–26, derived from natural fats and oils. The precise chain length varies with the source.[1][2] Some commercially important fatty alcohols are laurylstearyl, and oleyl alcohols. They are colourless oily liquids (for smaller carbon numbers) or waxy solids, Fatty alcohols are mainly used in the production of detergents and surfactants. They are components also of cosmetics, foods, and as industrial solvents. Due to their amphipathic nature, fatty alcohols behave as nonionic surfactants. They find use as co-emulsifiersemollients and thickeners in cosmetics and food industry. About 50% of fatty alcohols used commercially are of natural origin, the remainder being synthetic.

 

 

 

Fatty acids

Fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Most naturally occurring fatty acids have an un-branched chain of an even number of carbon atoms, from 4 to 28.the main usage of fatty acids is in soap industries.

 

Crude and refine glycerin

Glycerin is a simple polyol (sugar alcohol) compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and non-toxic. It is widely used in the food industry as a sweetener and humectant and in pharmaceutical formulations. Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. Glycerol is used in medical and pharmaceutical and personal care preparations, mainly as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication and as a humectant. Allyl iodide, a chemical building block for polymerspreservativesorganometallic catalysts, and pharmaceuticals, can be synthesized by using elementalphosphorus and iodine on glycerol.

 

 

RBD coconut oil)Refined, Bleached and Deodorized (

Coconut oil, or copra oil, is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). It has various applications. Because of its high saturated fat content, it is slow to oxidize and, thus, resistant to rancidification, lasting up to six months at 24 °C (75 °F) without spoiling Refined, bleached, and deodorized" (RBD) oil is usually made from copra, dried coconut kernel, which is placed in a hydraulic press with added heat and the oil is extracted. This yields practically all the oil present, amounting to more than 60% of the dry weight of the coconut. This "crude" coconut oil is not suitable for consumption because it contains contaminants and must be refined with further heating and filtering.

 

 

Another method for extraction of coconut oil involves the enzymatic action of alpha-amylasepolygalacturonases, and proteases on diluted coconut paste.

Unlike virgin coconut oil, refined coconut oil has no coconut taste or aroma. RBD oil is used for home cooking, commercial food processing, and cosmetic, industrial, and pharmaceutical purposes.

 

RBD Palm oil) Refined, Bleached and Deodorized (

Palm oil (also known as dendê oil, from Portuguese) is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms. Palm oil is naturally reddish in color because of a high beta-carotene content. After milling, various palm oil products are made using refining processes. First is fractionation, with crystallization and separation processes to obtain solid (stearin), and liquid (olein) fractions. Then melting and degumming removes impurities. Then the oil is filtered and bleached. Physical refining[clarification needed] removes smells and coloration to produce "refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil" (RBDPO) and free sheer fatty acids,[clarification needed] which are used in the manufacture of soapswashing powder and other products.

 

 

 

 

Tallow oil

Tallow oil is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. It is solid at room temperature. Unlike suet( پیه ), tallow can be stored for extended periods without the need for refrigeration to prevent decomposition, provided it is kept in an airtight( محفوظ از هوا ) container to prevent oxidation.In industry, tallow is not strictly defined as beef or mutton fat. In this context, tallow is animal fat that conforms to certain technical criteria, including its melting point. Beef tallow is obtained by rendering beef fat, the resultant product then being bleached, neutralised and deodorised (refined beef tallow). On the other hand, the product of fat that is simply rendered is known as "edible beef tallow". Beef tallow is obtained by means of a dry or wet rendering process. The wet rendering process is more gentle and delivers better yields. With the wet rendering process, offal from slaughterhouses undergoes coarse mechanical pulverising and is then steam-heated to a temperature of at least 90°C, breaking down and sterilising enzymes. Fat is then removed from the tissue. The water-fat mixture is then cooled and the fat (edible beef tallow) is separated. Further chemical-physical stages (bleaching, neutralisation, deodorisation) ultimately deliver a product known as 'refined beef tallow'. 

 

 

COCODIETHANOLAMIDE(CDE)

COCODIETHANOLAMIDE(CDE) is derived from RBD palm Kernel oil is a thickening and foam stabilizing agent in dish wash and shampoos. The final dish wash / shampoo must be neutral or slightly alkaline (PH 6.57.5). Otherwise, the maximum thickening will not be achieved and the solution may become cloudy. CDE will give a clear transparent solution and will not cause itching when used in dish wash/ shampoo if recommended conditions are followed.

 

 

 

 

 

Betaine -30

Betaine -30 (Cocoamide Propyl Betaine) is a RBD palm oil based biodegradable a mphoteric surfacta nt with betaine structure. As an amphoteric surfactant, Betaine -30 is compatible with anionic and cationic surfactants. It is particularly very suitable for mild (skin friendly) preparations such as shampoos, liquid soaps, dishwashing detergents, make up removers, in- bath products etc. Good foaming properties of Betaine -30 give fine and stable foam. It has substantively to the hair to provide soft touch and anti-static effect.

 

 

 

 

Cobalt hydroxide

Cobalt hydroxide is the chemical compound composed of cobalt and the hydroxide ionwith the formula Co(OH)2. It occurs in two forms, either as a rose-red powder, which is the more stable of the two forms, or as bluish-green powder.[1][4] It has the brucite or cadmium iodide crystal structure. It finds use as a drying agent for paintsvarnishes and inks, in the preparation of other cobalt compounds, as a catalystand in the manufacture of battery electrodes.

 

 

Titanium dioxide

Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. When used as a pigment(رنگ دانه), it is called titanium white, Pigment White 6 (PW6), or CI 77891. Generally it is sourced from ilmeniterutile and anatase. It has a wide range of applications, from paint to sunscreen to food colouring. When used as a food colouring, it has E number E171. The most important application areas are paints and varnishes as well as paper and plastics, which account for about 80% of the world's titanium dioxide consumption. Other pigment applications such as printing inks, fibers, rubber, cosmetic products and foodstuffs account for another 8%. The rest is used in other applications, for instance the production of technical pure titanium, glass and glass ceramics, electrical ceramics, catalysts, electric conductors and chemical intermediat Titanium dioxide is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and very high refractive index, in which it is surpassed only by a few other materials. es,

 

 

Barium sulfate 

Barium sulfate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaSO4. It is a white crystalline solid that is odorless and insoluble in water. It occurs as the mineral barite(سنگ معدن) , which is the main commercial source of barium and materials prepared from it. The white opaque( مات ) appearance and its high density are exploited in its main applications. The majority of synthetic barium sulfate is used as a component of white pigment for paints. In oil paint, barium sulfate is almost transparent, and is used as a filler or to modify consistency. Barium Sulfate is commonly used as filler for plastics to increase the density of the polymer in vibrational mass damping applications. In polypropylene and polystyrene plastics, it is used as a filler in proportions up to 70%.

 

 

Litharge        

Litharge is one of the natural mineral forms of lead(II) oxide, PbO. Litharge is a secondary mineral which forms from the oxidation of galena ores. It forms as coatings and encrustations with internal tetragonal crystal structure. Litharge is not used as a pigment in oil painting, but was used in manuscript illumination, powder painting, encaustic and fresco. It is synthesized by the alkali-catalyzed reaction of cellulose with chloroacetic acid.

 

Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)

Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or cellulose gum[1] is a cellulose derivative with carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone. It is often used as its sodium salt, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. CMC is used in food under the E number E466 as a viscosity modifier or thickener, and to stabilize emulsions in various products including ice cream. It is also a constituent of many non-food products, such as toothpastelaxativesdietpills, water-based paintsdetergents, textile sizing, and various paper products. It is used primarily because it has highviscosity, is nontoxic, and is generally considered to be hypoallergenic as the major source fiber is either softwood pulp or cotton linter.

 

 

 

Pentaerythritol 

Pentaerythritol is an organic compound with the formula C5H12O4. This white, crystalline polyol with the neopentane backbone is a versatile building block for the preparation of many poly functionalized compounds. Applications are building block in Alkyd resins, radiation curing monomers, polyurethanes, rosin esters, synthetic lubricants and explosives.Derivatives of pentaerythritol are components of alkydresinsvarnishespolyvinyl chloride stabilizers, tall oil esters, and olefin antioxidants.

 

 

Trimethylolpropane (TMP)

Trimethylolpropane (TMP) is the organic compound with the formula CH3CH2C(CH2OH)3. This colourless solid is atriol. Containing three hydroxy functional groups, TMP is a widely used building block in the polymer industry. Also TMP is mainly consumed as a precursor to alkyd resins. Otherwise, acrylated and alkoxylated TMP's are used as multifunctional monomers to produce various coatings, Ethoxylated and propoxylated TMP, derived condensation of from TMP and the epoxides, are used for production of flexible polyurethanes.

 

 

 

methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)

 Butanone, also known as methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), is an organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)CH2CH3. This colorless liquid ketone has a sharp, sweet odor reminiscent of butterscotch and acetone. It is produced industrially on a large scale, and also occurs in trace amounts in nature. It is soluble in water and is commonly used as an industrial solvent. Butanone is an effective and common solvent  and is used in processes involving gumsresinscellulose acetate and nitrocellulose coatings and in vinyl films. For this reason it finds use in the manufacture of plastics, textiles, in the production of paraffin wax, and in household products such as lacquervarnishes, paint remover, a denaturing agent for denatured alcoholglues, and as a cleaning agent. It has similar solvent properties to acetone but boils at a higher temperature and has a significantly slower evaporation rate. Butanone is also used in dry erase markers as the solvent of the erasable dye. As butanone dissolves polystyrene and many other plastics, it is sold as "model cement" for use in connecting parts ofscale model kits. Though often considered an adhesive, it is actually functioning as a welding agent in this context.

 

 

 

MEKO (Methylethyl ketone oxime)

Methylethyl ketone oxime is the organic compound with the formula C2H5C(NOH)CH3. This colorless liquid is the oxime derivative of methyl ethyl ketone. MEKO, as it is called in the paint industry, is used to suppress "skinning" of paints: the formation of a skin on paint before it is used. MEKO functions by binding the drying agents, metal salts that catalyze the oxidative crosslinking of drying oils. Once the paint is applied to a surface, MEKO evaporates, thereby allowing the drying process to proceed. Other anti-skinning agents have been used, including phenol-based antioxidants, but these tend to yellow the paint.

 

 

 

IPA (Isopropyl alcohol)

Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol), also called isopropanol or dimethyl carbinol, is a compound with thechemical formula C3H8O or C3H7OH or CH3CHOHCH3 (sometimes represented as i-PrOH). It is a colorlessflammablechemical compound with a strong odor. Isopropyl alcohol dissolves a wide range of non-polar compounds. It also evaporates quickly, leaves nearly zero oil traces, compared to ethanol, and is relatively non-toxic, compared to alternative solvents. Thus, it is used widely as a solvent and as a cleaning fluid, especially for dissolving oils. It can use as a intermediate, medical and in automotive a major ingredient in "gas dryer" fuel additives.

 

 

Phenol

Phenol, also known as carbolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH. It is a white crystalline solid that is volatile. The molecule consists of a phenyl group (−C6H5) bonded to a hydroxyl group(−OH). It is mildly acidic and requires careful handling due to its propensity to cause chemical burns.

Phenol was first extracted from coal tar, but today is produced on a large scale (about 7 billion kg/year) frompetroleum. It is an important industrial commodity as a precursor to many materials and useful compounds.[6] It is primarily used to synthesize plastics and related materials. Phenol and its chemical derivatives are essential for production of polycarbonatesepoxiesBakelitenylondetergentsherbicides such as phenoxy herbicides, and numerous pharmaceutical drugs.the major uses of phenol, consuming two thirds of its production, involve its conversion to precursors for plastics. Condensation with acetone gives bisphenol-A, a key precursor to polycarbonates and epoxide resins. Condensation of phenol, alkylphenols, or diphenols with formaldehyde gives phenolic resins, a famous example of which is Bakelite. Partial hydrogenation of phenol gives cyclohexanone, a precursor to nylon. Nonionicdetergents are produced by alkylation of phenol to give the alkylphenols, e.g., nonylphenol, which are then subjected to ethoxylation.

 

Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.[13] It is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid, and is the simplest ketone.

Acetone is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically for cleaning purposes in the laboratory. About 6.7 million tonnes were produced worldwide in 2010, mainly for use as a solvent and production ofmethyl methacrylate and bisphenol A.[14][15] It is a common building block in organic chemistry. Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover and as paint thinner.

Acetone is produced and disposed of in the human body through normal metabolic processes. It is normally present in blood and urine. People with diabetes produce it in larger amounts. Reproductive toxicity tests show that it has low potential to cause reproductive problems. Pregnant women, nursing mothers and children have higher levels of acetone.[16] Ketogenic diets that increase acetone in the body are used to counter epileptic attacks in infants and children who suffer from recalcitrant refractory epilepsy. About a third of the world's acetone is used as a solvent, and a quarter is consumed as acetone cyanohydrin, a precursor to methyl methacrylate.

 

Ethylene glycol 

Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound primarily used as a raw material in the manufacture of polyester fibers and fabric industry, and polyethylene terephthalate resins (PET) used in bottling. A small percent is also used in industrial applications like antifreeze formulations and other industrial products. It is an odorless, colorless, syrupy, sweet-tasting liquid. Ethylene glycol is moderately toxic, with children having been particularly at risk because of its sweet taste, until it became common to add bitter flavoring to consumer antifreezes containing it. Ethylene glycol is primarily used as a raw material in the manufacture of polyester fibers and fabric industry, andpolyethylene terephthalate (PET) resins used in bottling. A small percent is also used in other applications such as antifreeze formulations and other products. Ethylene glycol is used in the natural gas industry to remove water vapor from natural gas before further processing, in much the same manner as triethylene glycol (TEG).

 

 

Formic acid 

Formic acid (also called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. The chemical formula is HCOOH or HCO2H. It is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and occurs naturally, most notably in some ants. The word "formic" comes from the Latin word for ant, formica, referring to its early isolation by the distillation of ant bodies. Esters, salts, and the anions derived from formic acid are called formates. A major use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. In Europe, it is applied on silage (including fresh hay) to promote the fermentation of lactic acid and to suppress the formation of butyric acid; it also allows fermentation to occur quickly, and at a lower temperature, reducing the loss of nutritional value. Formic acid is also significantly used in the production of leather, including tanning (23% of the global consumption in 2009[10]), and in dyeing and finishing textiles (9% of the global consumption in 2009[10]) because of its acidic nature. Use as a coagulant in the production of rubber[7] consumed 6% of the global production in 2009

Cyclohexanol is the organic compound with the formula (CH2)5CHOH. The molecule is related to cyclohexane ring by replacement of one hydrogen atom by a hydroxyl group.[4] This compound exists as a deliquescent colorless solid with a camphor-like odor, which, when very pure, melts near room temperature. Billions of kilograms are produced annually, mainly as a precursor to nylon .As indicated above, cyclohexanol is an important feedstock in the polymer industry, firstly as a precursor to nylons, but also to various plasticizers. Small amounts are used as a solvent.

 

Naphthalenesulfonic

Naphthalenesulfonic acid was used as template molecule to prepare new non-covalent molecularly imprinted polymer for solid-phase extraction of naphthalene sulfonates. Naphthalenesulfonic acid is a superplasticizers which has remarkable effect on hydration kinetic and mechanical properties of cement pastes. Naphthalenesulfonic acid increases the workability and reduce the standard water of consistency. This results in an improvement in the mechanical properties of superplasticized cement pastes at all ages of the hydration–hardening process. Naphthalene sulfonate-formaldehyde condensate was found to have the higher efficiency in improving the mechanical properties of the hardened pastes than that of sodium lignosulfonate superplasticizer. Naphthalene sulfonic acids are used in the manufacture of naphthalene sulfonate polymer plasticizers (dispersants), which are used to produce concrete andplasterboard (wallboard or drywall). They are also used as dispersants in synthetic and natural rubbers, and as tanning agents (syntans) in leather industries,agricultural formulations (dispersants for pesticides), dyes and as a dispersant in lead–acid battery plates.

Naphthalene sulfonate polymers are produced by treating naphthalenesulfonic acid with formaldehyde, followed by neutralization with sodium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide. These products are commercially sold in solution (water) or dry powder form.

 

 

Natural rubber

Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compoundisoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds plus water. . Forms ofpolyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Natural rubber is used by many manufacturing companies for the production of rubber products. Currently, rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex from the para rubber tree or others. The latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions into the bark and collecting the fluid in vessels in a process called "tapping". The latex then is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products, either alone or in combination with other materials. In major areas latex is allowed to coagulate in the collection cup. The coagulated lumps are collected and processed into dry forms for marketing. In most of its useful forms, it has a large stretch ratio and high resilience, and is extremely waterproof. Compared to vulcanized rubber, uncured rubber has relatively few uses. It is used for cements; for adhesive, insulating, and friction tapes; and for crepe rubber used in insulating blankets and footwear. Vulcanized rubber, on the other hand, has numerous applications. Resistance to abrasion makes softer kinds of rubber valuable for the treads of vehicle tires and conveyor belts, and makes hard rubber valuable for pump housings and piping used in the handling of abrasive sludge.

The flexibility of rubber is often used in hoses, tires, and rollers for a wide variety of devices ranging from domestic clothes wringers to printing presses; its elasticity makes it suitable for various kinds of shock absorbers and for specialized machinery mountings designed to reduce vibration. Being relatively impermeable to gases, rubber is useful in the manufacture of articles such as air hoses, balloons, balls, and cushions. The resistance of rubber to water and to the action of most fluid chemicals has led to its use in rainwear, diving gear, and chemical and medicinal tubing, and as a lining for storage tanks, processing equipment, and railroad tank cars. Because of their electrical resistance, soft rubber goods are used as insulation and for protective gloves, shoes, and blankets; hard rubber is used for articles such as telephone housings, parts for radio sets, meters, and other electrical instruments. The coefficient of friction of rubber, which is high on dry surfaces and low on wet surfaces, leads to the use of rubber both for power-transmission belting and for water-lubricated bearings in deep-well pumps.

 

TMTD (Tetramethyl-thiuram-Disulfide )

This compound is used as a fungicide, seed disinfectant, bactericide, animal repellent, insecticide. It is used as a primary and secondary accelerator or as a sulfur donor (vulcanizing agent) in most sulfur-cured elastomers in rubber industry. It is also used in the treatments of chronic alcoholism with cause of acetaldehyde, a breakdown product of alcohol, to accumulate in the blood. It is a peptizing agent in sulfur-modified polychloroprenes. It is used in soaps and rodent repellents and as a nut, fruit and mushroom disinfectant.

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CBS (N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulphenamide)

This compound is the most common sulfenamide accelerator in EDPM. It is a primarily amine-based accelerator providing medium-fast cure with good scorch safety and excellent modulus development.It is also used as a secondary accelerators in combination with such as TMTD to adjust curing characteristics. Rubber accelerators are now being fabricated in finely dispersed powder form, which improves the distribution of the compounds in rubber mixes. But the dispersion of the accelerators causes lumping and caking, and this hinders process mechanization and automatic control in the preparation and processing of rubber mixes. Granulation of rubber cure accelerators results in material which flows freely and is easily transported, but the accelerator should retain its finely dispersed structure. Granules satisfying this requirements can be produced on extruders by taking advantage of the tendency of aqueous pastes of rubber vulcanizing accelerators to plasticize when subjected to intense mixing and grinding.

 

DPG (Diphenyl guanidine),

Guanidine, also called carbamidine, is a strongly alkaline and water-soluble compound, NHC(NH2)2 It is formed by the oxidation of guanine in urine as a normal product of protein metabolism in the body. In industry, guanidine, containing nitrogens and N=C solid bond, and its modified derivatives are versatile intermediates used in the manufacture of plastics, resins, rubber chemicals, nitroguanidines (explosives), photo chemicals, fungicides, and disinfectant. It has also biotechnological application of protein separation, purification and as a protein denaturant. It can be used as an oxygen scavenger to prevent corrosion damage. It is used as a component of rocket propellants because it produce a large amount of heat when burned.

Diphenylguanidine is one of common accelerators for the vulcanization of rubber in combination with thiazoles and sulfenamides. Though it does not show better activity than thiuram and dithiocarbamates, it has better stability. It is used as a complexing agent for the detection of metals and organic bases. It is used as a secondary foam stabilizer in the silicoflouride foam process.

 

 

MBS (N-Oxydiethylene-2-benzothiazole sulfonamide)

Light yellow or orange crystal (granule), non-poisonous but with a little odor of ammonia. The proportion is 1.34-1.40, Melting point is 80 ℃. Soluble in benzene, acetone, chloroform, insoluble in water, dilute acid, dilute alkali. A delayed vulcanization accelerator, with the peculiarity of weak activity, strong refund ductility, short curing time, good scorch resistance, and its processing is safe, . Mainly used in the manufacture of tires, rubber hose, rubber shoes, conveyor belt and other industrial rubber products.

 

 

MBT (2-Mercapto Benzothiazole)

Slightly foul odor and bitter taste, non-poisonous. Easily soluble in ethyl acetone, acetone, dilute solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate, soluble in ethyl alcohol, not easily soluble in benzene, insoluble in water and gasoline. The product is a hemi-ultra accelerator, extensively used in vulcanization of natural and synthetic rubbers. Mainly used in manufacturing of rubber tire, rubber belts, rubber shoes and other technical rubber goods.

 

 

 

Bisphenol A

What is BPA?

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical used to make polycarbonate plastic resins, epoxy resins, and other products.

How is BPA used?

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical building block that is used primarily to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastic is a lightweight, high-performance plastic that possesses a unique balance of toughness, optical clarity, high heat resistance, and excellent electrical resistance. Because of these attributes, polycarbonate is used in a wide variety of common products including digital media (e.g., CDs, DVDs), electrical and electronic equipment, automobiles, sports safety equipment, reusable food and drink containers , and many other products.

BPA is also used in the production of epoxy resins. Epoxy resins have many uses including engineering applications such as electrical laminates for printed circuit boards, composites, paints and adhesives, as well as in a variety of protective coatings. Cured epoxy resins are inert materials used as protective liners in metal cans to maintain the quality of canned foods and beverages, and have achieved wide acceptance for use as protective coatings because of their exceptional combination of toughness, adhesion, formability, and chemical resistance.

 

How much BPA is produced?

In 2002, approximately 2.8 million tons of bisphenol A (BPA) was produced globally (Source: Chemical Market Associates, Inc. (CMAI)). Most BPA is used to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins.

Has BPA been tested for safety?

Yes. Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most extensively tested materials in use today. BPA has been safely used in consumer products and researched and studied for over 40 years. The weight of scientific evidence clearly supports the safety of BPA and provides strong reassurance that there is no basis for human health concerns from exposure to BPA.

Does BPA pose a risk to human health?

Safety assessments of bisphenol A (BPA) conclude that the potential human exposure to BPA from polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins is more than 400 times lower than the safe level of BPA set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This minimal level of exposure to BPA poses no known risk to human health.

The use of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins for food contact applications has been and continues to be recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Food, the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency, and other regulatory agencies worldwide

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